BCBA Terms

TermDefinitionTerm #
AccuracyWhen data are consistent with "true values."1
Bias of partial interval recording, whole interval recording and momentary time samplingPartial interval: overestimates rates, used for reduction targets. Whole interval: underestimates rates, used for acquisition skills. Momentary time sampling: no systematic bias2
Choice measure1. Provide choice of >= 2 options 2. Calculate the allocation of behavior (# responses to Option #1/# responses to all options) - can be computed as a %3
Collateral MeasuresMeasures of behaviors other than the primary target behaviors4
Continuous vs. Sampling RecordingContinuous - uninterrupted observation and recording so that every instance of behavior will be detected. Sampling - behavior observed and recorded occasionally5
Cumulative RecordGraph that shows the cumulative number of responses over time. Rate of response is represented by the slope of the line.6
CycleA description of behavior that specifies when a behavior begins and when it ends.7
DataThe results of measurement usually in a quantifiable form (e.g., # aggressions in a day, the rate of correct vs incorrect flash cards).8
Data pathThe line connecting two successive data points.9
Dead Man’s TestTest for evaluating whether a goal or objective is viable. If a dead man can do it, then it may not be a functional, useful goal.10
Direct ObservationObserving behavior directly, instead of assessing through testing11
Discrete TrialsAn instructional method wherein the client is presented with formal opportunity to perform behavior. Consequence is provided depending on behavior.12
DurationTime between the beginning of a response and the end of that response13
Duration RecordingUsing some timing device, recording the length of time of the behavior/response14
Equal interval graphA graph in which one unit on the scale represents the same magnitude of change being measured across the whole range of the scale. For example, the distance on the graph between 1 and 2 is the same distance as between 50 and 51. Both are an increase of 15
Event Recording# of occurrences of a response are recorded.16
FrequencyNumber of times a behavior occurs (Ex: count)17
Functional Response DefinitionIncludes the topography of response as well as the functional antecedents and/or consequences.18
Fundamental Characteristics of Behavior1. Temporal locus 2. Temporal extent 3. Repeatability. Rate, Latency, Duration, and IRT are derived from these.19
GraphVisual display of data, used for decision making and comparisons of different treatments20
Horizontal Axis LabelSome unit of time (days, sessions, weeks, etc)21
Ignored DayA day wherein the behavior did have a chance to occur but no data were collected, thus, the previous data point and the one following are connected22
Incident method of pinpointingHave caregiver report a specific incident of problem behavior, and derive the definition from the incident23
IntensityForce of behavior, which could be measured in decibels (loudness) or lbs/sq in (pressure)24
Inter-observer agreement (IOA)Extent to which two observer's data agree. It is said to estimate accuracy.25
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): exact count per interval1. Divide observation time into intervals 2. Count # of intervals in which there is exact agreement 3. Compute IOA for each interval by the (# of exact agreements/# total intervals) x 10026
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): mean count per interval1. Divide observation time into intervals 2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing (small/large) x 100 3. Average all interval IOA27
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Scored (or Occurrence)(# of agreements that behavior occurred)/(# bins where both score + and # bins where 1 scored +) - bins where both score - are excluded28
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Scored (or Occurrence) used for…It is a conservative measure of agreement for low rate behavior29
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): total count(Smaller count/larger count) X 10030
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Binary data(# trials with agreement/# trials) x 10031
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): unscored (or non-occurrence)(# of agreements that behavior did not occur)/(# bins where both score - and # bins where 1 scored -) - bins where both score + are excluded32
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Unscored (or non-occurrence) used for…It is a conservative measure of agreement for high rate behavior33
IRT - Interresponse TimeTime between end of a response and the beginning of another response.34
LatencyDuration of time between a stimulus and the beginning of response35
LevelGeneral height of the points, typically described by median/mean of points36
Measure for task completion# tasks completed / # tasks given or # tasks completed vs # tasks not completed37
Momentary-Time SamplingA recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurs at the end of the bin. A "-" is recorded if behavior does not occur at the end of the bin. There is no systematic bias.38
Narrative recordingOn-line description of behavior, antecedents and consequences written in prose.39
No Chance DayA day wherein the behavior could not occur, thus, the previous data point and the one following are not connected.40
Observation Times for High Rate BehaviorCan be brief41
Observation Times for Low Rate BehaviorLonger duration to catch the behavior42
Observer driftTendency for an observer's recording to gradually change across time. It can be pinpointed to the time when an observer's scores differ from those of a 2nd observer. One cause is a change in response definition.43
Partial Interval RecordingRecording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded in each bin if a behavior occurs at all during that bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur at all during that bin. This recording procedure tends to be an 44
Percent of occurrence100* Number of occurrences/Number of opportunities45
Percentage Correct# of correct responses/ # of total responses, multiplied by 10046
Permanent Product RecordingRecording the effects of the behavior, not the behavior itself (Ex: bed made)47
Pinpoint behaviorObjective definition of the behavior in question48
Probe TrialsA brief exposure to a different set of conditions. For example, generalization probes, treatment probes, and withdrawal probes. 49
Rate#of responses/ time (Ex: responses/minute)50
Rate/min issueRate/min is a measure of celeration. If a rate measure is needed, use # beh/min.51
ReactivityExtent to which the act of recording influences behavior (behavior changes when being observed)52
RecalibrationRe-training an observer to increase accuracy, used to decrease/correct observer drift53
Recording ProceduresMethods for recording behavior that produce data transposable into a measure54
ReliabilityExtent to which a given measurement result will be obtained with the same sample of behavior - consistency!55
Split Middle MethodMethod for drawing a trend line. The line is drawn so that half of the data points fall above the line and half of the data points fall below the line.56
Topography of ResponseForm of response (e.g. kicking, hitting,)57
TrendDirection of the data points, described by a trend line58
Trials to CriterionNumber of trials required for a behavior to meet some criterion (Ex: number of trials it takes to complete a task without error)59
True ValuesData in which extraordinary measures have been taken to eliminate sources of error. True values hould approximate the true measure of the behavior in the sample.60
VariabilityExtent to which the data points vary from day to day, often expressed as the range of data points in a steady state. In transition state, variability around trend line.61
Vertical Axis LabelThe measure of behavior62
Whole Interval RecordingA recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurred during the entire bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur during the entire bin. This recording is an underestimate. Thus, it of63
Y-axis on a standard chartCount per minute64
Alternating Treating (multi-element) DesignTwo or more treatments with their own signal, alternated across time - usually in the same day. Changes in conditions are not dependent on stability.65
Between subject designsParticipants only receive 1 condition (e.g., BL or TX). The mean of each group is typically reported.66
Changing CriterionA design in which criterion in reinforcement is systematically changed. Control is shown when changes in behavior shadow changes in criterion.67
Component AnalysisTaking treatment apart and identifying which component is the effective component. Can be accomplished by slowly taking each element out -or- by starting with a single element and slowly adding each element.68
Confounding VariableUncontrolled variables or events that influence the outcome of an experiment. Often accompany the IV and thus are indistinguishable from the IV.69
CorrelationTwo events co-vary. One may cause the second, the second may cause the first, or both may be caused by a third variable.70
Deductive ProcessesTesting hypothesis by collecting data in systematic manipulation format.71
Dependent VariableMeasure of behavior of interest72
Design combination: example1. Mult BL with w/d on one of the BL 2. Mult BL with ATD in the Tx condition73
Direct ReplicationRepeating the exact experiment with the same (intra-subject) or similar subjects (inter-subject). When used with the same participant, allows for assessment of internal validity.74
Divided attentionWhen attention is diverted to another person, and not just withheld75
Experimental DesignA sequence of conditions that permit conclusions about whether the changes in behavior resulted from the intervention76
External ValidityExtent to which intervention can be successfully applied to other people, other situations, or other behaviors. Also termed generality.77
Functional RelationWhen an independent variable lawfully affects a dependent variable78
Independent VariableTreatment or intervention79
Inductive processesGenerating a hypothesis from data that has already been collected.80
Internal ValidityWhether or not changes in behavior can be attributed to the intervention. AB designs lack strong internal validity, but ABA or ABAB designs have strong internal validity.81
Multiple Baseline (3)Baseline data are collected on two or more subjects, situations, or behaviors. Intervention is applied to the first, and then the first and second, etc.82
Multiple ProbeMultiple baseline design except that untreated behaviors are assessed periodically through probes until they receive the intervention.83
Parametric AnalysisStudying different values or levels of a treatment. Can be accomplished by randomly presenting the different values in a ABCDEF design varied across participants -or- by presenting the values in an ascending/descending series in ABCDEDCBA design.84
Practical Issues with Alternating Treatments DesignEffects of one treatment can be seen in other conditions due to rapid alternation. If treatment procedures are not discriminable, differences may not be evident in data.85
Practical Issues with Changing Criterion DesignNot all behaviors/treatments can be studied with this design. In some cases, a reinforcement parameter may be able to be varied.86
Practical Issues with Multiple Baseline DesignRequires untreated behaviors, participants or settings which could be dangerous. Internal validity can be unclear when generalization occurs.87
Practical Issues with Withdrawal & Reversal Designs1. Requires counter-therapeutic change 2. Not appropriate for irreversible changes 3. SIB can be dangerous in this design88
Reinforcer Assessment ProceduresTest to see if the stimulus when presented contingent on a behavior, will increase the rate of the behavior - can use withdrawal design, reversal design, concurrent schedules89
Reversal DesignA design in which an intervention is applied to behavior, then removed and a second intervention is applied to the same behavior (ex: NCR), and then the second intervention is removed and the first is re-applied.90
Steady stateWhen data show no trend according to some criterion (e.g., no visible trend over 5 sessions)91
Systematic ReplicationPurposefully changing elements of the experiment and repeating the new experiment. Displays external validity or generality.92
Threats to Internal ValidityEvents that call into question whether the changes in behavior resulted from the treatment. Include maturation of the subject(s), inaccurate or biased recording, poor implementation of the treatment, unplanned environmental changes, etc.93
Transition stateWhen there is a trend in the data, and there is presumably an ongoing behavioral process that is changing the strength of the behavior. Transition states occur between steady states.94
Withdrawal DesignDesign in which baseline conditions are alternated with intervention conditions. Minimum alternations are ABA or BAB.95
Withdrawal with Probe DesignA standard ABAB design except the return to the A condition is very brief.96
Yoking: between subjectBetween subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition is used in another condition for a different subject (e.g., one subject, called the master, is responding under a FR 5 condition. When this subject earns a reinforcer, another subject receives a reinforcer.97
Yoking: within subjectWithin subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition is used in another condition for a subject (e.g., the rate of reinforcement in a FR 5 condition is used to program a FT schedule in another condition).98
Punishment Side Effects (x5)1. Escape from the punishing agent 2. Aggression towards punishing agent 3. Emotional behavior 4. Modeling by observers 5. Inappropriate generalization – person afraid to do anything.99
Resistance to ExtinctionThe extent to which behavior persists when the maintaining reinforcer is withheld. Abbreviation: RTE100
Schedule Induced (adjunctive) Behavior.Behavior that seems to appear because it is under a schedule of reinforcement. E.g. Some organisms will exhibit aggression under FR 50 schedules of food delivery, rats will exhibit copious drinking when exposed to FI 1 schedules of food delivery.101
Schedule induced aggression examplePigeons responding under an FR 100 schedule of food delivery will aggress towards other pigeons upon the offset of access to food.102
Side Effects of Negative ReinforcementSimilar to punishment side effects: escape from aversive stimuli, aggression, emotional behavior, etc.103
Side Effects of Positive Reinforcement (positive side effects)Approach behavior (instead of escape), positive emotional behavior (the person "likes" the staff/parent)104
Side Effects of Positive Reinforcement (unfortunate side effects)Schedule-induced aggression, frequent requests for reinforcer (nagging), "shadowing" the source of reinforcement, attempts to escape schedule when the requirements are high (e.g., high FR schedules).105
Spontaneous RecoveryFollowing an extinction session, a temporary re-appearance of the behavior in the beginning of the next extinction session. It is thought that the re-appearance is due to the relative novelty of the "beginning of the session" that was only briefly experie106
Adjusting RatioRatio schedule in which size of the ratio increases as responding becomes more rapid and consistent, but decreases when responding deteriorates.107
Adventitious ReinforcementRefers to accidental reinforcement, results in superstitious behavior. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it. Ex: Pitcher wears socks and has good game, then wears sock at all game108
Avoidance behaviorAvoidance behavior is reinforced by the postponement or avoidance of an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer).109
Backup ReinforcerA reinforcer that is obtained by exchanging a token for it in token systems110
Backward ChainingTeaching a sequence of responses by initially training the last response of the chain, the second to last and the last, etc. Reinforcer is delivered after the required number of steps are completed.111
Chain ScheduleTwo or more schedules are presented successively each with its own signal. A reinforcer is given only at the end of the sequence (FR10-FI1’-VR20-Reinforcer)112
ChainingSystematically linking together individual skills into a larger chain of skills.113
Concurrent Schedule (Conc)Two or more schedules are available simultaneously that can be selected (choose to work in workshop or watch TV)114
Conditioned suppression: ABAWhen the signal of an upcoming aversive event is on (you are waiting in the Dr office), ongoing responding is suppressed (it is hard to have an intelligent conversation in the DR office).115
Conditioned suppression: EABAnimal responds under VI schedule for food. Periodically, a stimulus comes on and then is soon followed by a shock. When the stimulus is on, responding for food is suppressed.116
Contingent EffortAny one of several procedures that involve requiring, contingent on a response, client to engage in an effortful activity.117
Contingent ObservationContingent on behavior, the person is removed from ongoing activities and permitted to observe same.118
Continuous ReinforcementRefers to a FR1 schedule wherein every response produces a reinforcer119
Delayed ImitationWhen a person imitates a model, but the model is no longer present.120
Delayed PromptsPrompts are given after a period of time elapses after the SD (gives the person a chance to perform independently)121
Differential ReinforcementWhen a reinforcement contingency depends on 1. presence or absence of a feature of a response, as in response differentiation -or- 2. the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus, as in discrimination training122
Differential reinforcement example of Tx of self stimReinforce appropriate playing with toys to decrease rocking.123
Direct InstructionA method of teaching material such as reading and math that involves scripted presentations, active student participation, and immediate feedback from the teacher.124
DRADifferential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is an alternative to the target behavior but not necessarily incompatible.125
DRHDifferential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behaviors. Reinforcer is delivered for more than a fixed number of responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after an IRT less than some criterion amount of time. Used to increase behavior.126
DRIDifferential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is incompatible with the target behavior.127
DRLDifferential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered for no more than a fixed number of responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after an IRT greater than some criterion amount of time. Used to decrease behavior.128
DRODifferential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response does not occur for a fixed (or varied in VDRO) amount of time.129
DRO: MomentaryMDRO 5 min = observe person after 5 minutes, and if the decel target behavior is not occurring at the moment, then deliver some stimulus130
Echoic (controlling variables)Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR. PTP and similar forms.131
Errorless DiscriminationTeaching Discrimination with few or no errors. Ex: Fading in S-delta (incorrect stimulus) -or- superimposing a new set of stimuli on an already learned discrimination then fading out the already learned stimuli132
Escape ExtinctionExtinction of a negatively reinforced behavior. Withholding escape.133
Escape/Avoidance hierarchyA sequence of steps that increase in aversive properties. Used in "tolerance training"134
Example of verbal behavior under multiple control (e.g., impure tact)Kid who tacts candy that is evoked by deprivation of candy. Thus, the strength of "candy" is determined by the sight of candy and candy deprivation.135
Exclusion TimeoutTimeout from reinforcement in which the person is removed from the immediate situation, but kept in the general area. View is restricted by partition or some other structure. This definition may vary from state-to-state.136
ExtinctionWithholding a stimulus that normally occurs after a behavior, resulting in a decrease in the rate of behavior.137
Extinction Side-EffectsExtinction burst, emotional behavior, aggression, increase in variety of topographies, increase in intensity of behavior138
Extra-stimulus PromptsThose prompts that are "outside" the SD, such as physical guidance, to prompt hand washing139
Facial ScreeningBriefly covering the eyes or restricting visual input in some way, contingent on a behavior140
FadingThe gradual withdrawal of prompts, such that the SD alone evokes the desired behavior141
Fair Pair1. ID the inappropriate behavior and program a procedure to directly decrease it 2. ID a replacement behavior and teach it: These 2 elements constitute a "fair pair"142
FD - Fixed durationA schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is contingent on sustaining a behavior for a fixed amount of time.143
FeedbackProviding information contingent on a behavior. Can function as reinforcement or punishment, depending on the nature of the information.144
FI- Fixed IntervalReinforcer delivered after the first response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. Produces a scalloped rate of responding145
Forward ChainingTeaching a sequence of responses by initially training the first response of the chain, then the first and second, etc. Reinforcer is presented after the required number of steps are completed.146
FR-Fixed RatioReinforcer delivered after fixed number of responses. Produces steady, high rate of response with pauses after reinforcement147
FT- Fixed TimeA reinforcer is delivered after a fixed time , irrespective of behavior.148
Generalized Conditioned ReinforcerReinforcer that is effective in many situations because it can be exchanged for a wide variety of backup reinforcers. Ex: tokens, money149
Generalized ImitationImitation skills that will occur even to untrained models.150
Graduated GuidanceGive prompts were they are required, but immediately fade when a person begins to perform the response151
How to use verbal operants as a language assessment: examples1. Assess number of skills in each operant 2. Use intraverbal to test vocabulary152
Incidental learningLearning that occurs in naturally occurring activities, not as a result of programmed, artificial learning trials.153
InstructionsVerbal descriptions of behavior and antecedents/consequences.154
Isolation TimeoutA timeout from reinforcement in which the person is placed in another location away from others155
Kinds of PromptsPhysical guidance, gestural, written, verbal, imitation (modeling)156
Learn unitA concept in instruction in which the teacher presents an SD, there is active student responding, and the teacher provides feedback to the student. Ideally, learn units should occur frequently.157
Least-to-Most PromptingGive SD and then wait for response to be performed. If it is not, give the least intrusive prompt first, then second least intrusive, etc.158
Level Systems (sometimes called molar system)Level System wherein clients begin at bottom level and then work their way up to higher levels. Each level has its own behavioral criteria for entry and its own collection of reinforcers. Reinforcer value increases with the levels159
Limited HoldWhen reinforcer is available for the next response, that response has a limited amount of time to occur or the reinforcer is lost (FI 1’ LH10”). Used with interval schedules. 160
Listener training1. Compliance 2. Point to… 3. Find the…161
MaintenanceExtent to which a procedure can produce durable changes in behavior -or- a phase of acquisition that uses specially designed procedures to maintain an already-learned response162
Maintenance procedures (6 ways)1. train to fluency 2. use naturally occurring stimuli 3. fade out artificial stimuli 4. use delayed consequences 5. use self-control repertoires 6. use intermittent schedules of reinforcement163
Mixed ScheduleTwo or more independent schedules that are presented successively but each does not have its own signal. Independent schedules are those that program their own schedule of reinforcement. (Mix FR 10 FI 2')164
ModelSome antecedent stimulus that is topographically identical to the behavior to be strengthened165
Model CharacteristicsCharacteristics that might influence whether a model's behavior will be imitated: model similarity, prestige of model, emphasis on modeled behaviors, how nurturing the model is, and instructions.166
ModelingProviding a model for another person to imitate.167
Momentary DRODRO schedule in which reinforcer is delivered if the target behavior is not occurring at the moment the DRO interval terminates.168
Most-to-Least PromptingPresent the prompt at maximum intensity, and gradually use a less intense prompt over successive trials.169
Multiple Schedule (Mult)Two or more schedules that are presented successively each with their own signal (1st period has FR10 attention for tasks, 2nd period with different teacher has Ext for task completion). (Mult FR 10 Ext)170
Negative PracticeContingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring client to engage in that behavior repeatedly. Has been used in smoking cessation.171
Positive Practice OvercorrectionContingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring person to practice the appropriate behavior that should have occurred. Ex: if a child wets his pants, he will then practice standing up and walking to the bathroom.172
Post-Reinforcement PauseA brief pause of responding immediately after reinforcement under fixed-ratio or variable ratio schedules. Is sometimes called the pre-ratio pause, as the pause duration is determined by the size of the upcoming ratio.173
Premack PrincipleProcedure in which high probability behavior can be used to reinforce low probability behavior and low probability behavior can be used to punish high probability behavior174
Progressive RatioRatio Schedule in which the ratio size gradually increases over time. This schedule is sometimes used to assess reinforcer effectiveness. To do so, the "break point" is identified - last completed ratio.175
Progressive ratio break pointIn a PR schedule, the break point is the last ratio size completed before the organism stops responding. In reinforcer assessments, the higher the break point, the more effective is the reinforcer.176
Progressive RelaxationTechnique of relaxation wherein the person relaxes various muscle groups. When completed, the person is able to totally relax all major muscle groups under the control of a cue.177
PromptsAn extra antecedent stimulus that is used to evoke a behavior such that it can then be reinforced178
Protective equipment example of Tx of self stimUse helmet to decrease face slapping that produces sensory stimuli.179
Punishment example of Tx of self stim1. Overcorrection 2. Timeout (but prevent self stim in timeout)180
Punishment Guidelines for Efficacy (7 guidelines)1. Immediate after the target behavior 2. Consistent- punish every response (FR1) 3. Provide alternative behavior that obtains same reinforcer 4. Do not allow reinforcer to follow to closely after punisher 5. Use High Intensity Punisher 6. Withhold all reinforcement 7. Punisher should be linked to assessment data.
Ratio StrainA decrease in responding under a ratio schedule because ratio size is too large or was increased to rapidly182
Required RelaxationContingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring person to lie down and relax in quiet area for a period of time.183
Response class covariationOperants contain various topographies. If the strength of one member of the operant is changed by reinforcement or punishment, then the strength of the other members is changed as well.184
Response class covariation: role in treating low rate/high intensity behaviorMay focus on treating lower intensity behavior in same class.185
Response CostContingent on some inappropriate behavior, the removal of a reinforcing object (radio, token, magazine).186
Response Deprivation ProceduresProcedure that involves depriving an organism of the opportunity to emit a response and then using the opportunity to emit the response as a potential reinforcer for other behavior.187
Response DifferentiationA use of differential reinforcement to change a characteristic of behavior. For example, a father may only listen to his son when the son talks about sports. As a result, the son frequently talks sports.188
Restitutional OvercorrectionContingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring the person to restore the environment to a condition superior to that before the behavior occurred.189
Schedule of reinforcementA rule that specifies when a reinforcer will be delivered.190
Schedule ThinningGradually decreasing the rate of reinforcement. In a FR schedule, the FR size increases. In a FI schedule, the time requirement increases.191
Sensory ExtinctionExtinction of a behavior maintained by sensory reinforcers. The sensory reinforcers are withheld.192
Sensory extinction example of self stimDisconnect light bulb to decrease flipping of light switch193
ShadowingWhen the trainer moves his/ her hands along with the client's hands as he performs the skill.194
ShapingGradually changing the form or topography of a behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the correct response195
Simple Schedules of ReinforcementSingle schedules such as FR, VR, FI, VI, FT, VT, FD, VD196
Simultaneous promptsPrompts are given at the same time or just after the SD197
Spatial FadingGradually changing the spatial locus of a prompt during fading. E.g. going from hand, to wrist, to forearm, etc.198
Stimulus ShapingInvolves transfer of stimulus control from an already effective stimulus to a new stimulus. E.g. using two apples to teach number 2 and then fading them into the number 2.199
Superstitious BehaviorBehavior that occurs as a result of "accidental" or adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it.200
Tandem ScheduleTwo or more schedules that are presented successively, but there is no signal for each. A reinforcer is given only at the end of the sequence201
Teaching VB using transfer of stimulus control1. Teach echoics or textuals 2. Use echoics or textuals as prompts when teaching mands, tacts, intraverbals 3. Fade use of echoics or textuals as prompts202
TimeoutTime out from reinforcement – signaling the removal of opportunity to earn reinforcement for a period of time, contingent on inappropriate behavior.203
Transfer of Stimulus ControlWhen one stimulus can evoke a response, and then that capacity is transferred to a second stimulus204
VD - Variable durationA schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is contingent on sustaining a behavior for a variable amount of time.205
Verbal operants: Basis for language assessmentIt is reasonable to conduct a language assessment by assessing competence in each the the verbal operants. Data can be collected on the frequency of particular forms, and the number of said forms.206
VI-Variable IntervalReinforcement delivered after the first response after an average amount of time has elapsed. Produces a steady, medium rate of response with little pausing.207
VR-Variable RatioReinforcement delivered after average number of responses. Produces a steady, very high rate of response with brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement208
VT- Variable TimeA reinforcer is delivered after a variable amount of time (average) irrespective of behavior.209
Within-stimulus PromptsThose prompts that are contained within the SD, such as isolating and exaggerating the critical difference between an "E" and "F"210
Antecedent ManipulationAdding or removing antecedents that evoke behaviors. Include MO, SD, response effort211
Antecedent Manipulations1. Establishing/abolishing Operation 2. Present SD for appropriate behavior 3. Remove SDs for inappropriate behavior 4. Increase response effort for inappropriate behavior212
AO example of Tx of self stimProvide vibration toys to decrease head banging; self stim toys to decrease range of self stim213
Behavior contrast: negativeWhen a treated behavior increases, and the same untreated behavior in another situation decreases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules.214
Behavior contrast: positiveWhen a treated behavior decreases (e.g., ext or punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another situation increases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules.215
Behavioral RehearsalPracticing a skill under stimulated conditions that approximate those in the natural environment. Use the typical teaching techniques such as prompts, fading, chaining, and reinforcement.216
Concept FormationGeneralization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes. E.g.. Learning to identify all canines as dogs and learning to discriminate between dogs and cats217
Contingency ContractAgreement between client and programmer that states specific behaviors by the client and what consequences will be forthcoming for each behavior.218
Dependent Group ContingencyReinforcer for a group depends on the behavior of a single person or small # of people219
Discrimination TrainingReinforcing a behavior in the presence of some stimulus and extinguishing (or punishing) the behavior in the absence of the stimulus.220
High probability request sequence (behavior momentum) - research resultsTo increase the frequency of following a low probability request: 1. Give several high probability requests prior to the low probability request 2. For compliance to each high probability request, provide a reinforcer.221
Independent Group ContingencyReinforcer is available for any person whose behavior meets a criterion222
Interdependent Group ContingencyReinforcer is available if all people in the group meet a minimum criterion -or- the group's overall performance meets a criterion223
Pairing procedures to establish conditioned reinforcers and punishers1. Deliver neutral stimulus just before already established reinforcer 2. Don’t deliver the established reinforcer by itself224
Planned Ignoring: Also termed tactical ignoringBehavior maintained by social reinforcers, and such reinforcers are withheld for a given period of time contingent on the behaviors.225
Predictability relation to problem behaviorUsed in behavior programs to decrease problem behavior. This can involve written or picture schedules of upcoming events.226
RehearsalPracticing a behavior to be learned227
Reinforcer MenuA visual display of several reinforcers from which the person may choose228
Rules for Designing a Token System1. base it on functional assessments 2. ID tokens that are easily used 3. ID target behaviors and rules for obtaining tokens 4. ID schedule of token exchange 5. ID how tokens will be conditioned as reinforcers 6. field test the system and fine tune as nee229
SatiationDecrease in responding due to the reduced effectiveness of the reinforcer, because the person has received too much of it.230
Social Learning TheoryTheory of learning that posits learning occurs as a result of observations that subsequently affect the person through cognitive mediational processes.231
Task interspersalIn instruction, difficult tasks should be presented and interspersed with easier tasks (such as maintenance tasks).232
Task VariationThe extent to which tasks are varied in a block of time. There is some research that suggests rapidly varying the tasks may engender improved learning.233
TokensGeneralized conditioned reinforcers that when earned can be exchanged for other reinforcers, or backup reinforcers. Benefits: quickly & easily delivered, exchanged for a variety of backup reinforcers.234
Total Task TrainingWhen an entire task is trained at once, instead of implementing a chaining procedure. Usually includes graduated guidance235
Weakening Behavior: Replacement skillsSelect a replacement skill that is easy to emit and has the same function as the inappropriate behavior236
Augmentive communication systemSystems used to supplement or replace vocalization, signing, or writing (e.g., Light talker, Proloquo, Dynavox)237
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)Material is broken down into units and each unit has its own study objectives. Students work at their own pace, study the material and then take an exam. Students must meet mastery criterion on an exam and may re-take exams until criterion is met.238
Precision TeachingUsing behavioral teaching methods and the standard chart to track progress and make Tx decisions.239
Self ControlInvolves treatment procedures that are implemented by the client. And, whether or not the procedures are implemented are determined by the client, as in self reinforcement or self punishment. Typically requires some external source of contingency managem240
Self ManagementAnother term for self control. The person actively participates in the recording, goal setting, or reinforcement procedures.241
Self-PunishmentClient decides if their behavior meets criteria for punishment and delivers the punisher (or arranges for its delivery) if it does.242
Self-RecordingClient decides if and when their own behavior meets a criterion, and then recording the behavior if it does.243
Self-reinforcementClients decides if behavior meets criteria for reinforcement and delivers the reinforcer (or arranges for its delivery) if it does.244
Time series analysisUsing a complex statitical test for changes in level and/or trend in two or more conditions245
Interventions based on client preferences1. Client is interested in pool. So teach social skills during pool games 2. Kid prefers to be outside. So teach play skills outside246
Direct assessmentDirect contact with the person: Direct observation, collect ABC data, narrative recording, naturalistic observation247
Environmental Changes to Reduce the Need for TxMaking changes in the environment that will reduce the need for a behavior program: find interesting job, satisfying places to live/recreate, network of friends, provide choices248
Explain behavior in behavior-analytic terms1. Mentalistic: Aggression is caused by low self esteem 2. Behavior analytic: Aggression is caused by a history of attention deliverd after the behavior249
Indirect assessmentNo contact with the actual behavior: interviews, records review, checklists250
Non-technical language in explaining behavioral conceptsBehavior for attention:
1. Technical: The behavior is maintained by contingent attention 2. Non-technical: Every time the behavior occurs he gets attention,251
Preliminary assessment1. Practitioner gathers basic information about the case and about the target behavior. 2. Determines if behavior services are appropriate 3. Is he/she the appropriate provider252
Solutions for referrals of cases with which you have inadequate training/experience1. Get consulation, supervision, or training 2. Refer out253
When collaborating with other non-behavioral professionals…1. Do: offer suggestions, make recommendation respectively 2. Do not: try and re-train them, tell them they are wrong, report them to their supervisors 3. Overall: approach the situation behaviorally254
Bar Graphs (Histograms)Graphs used to show the average # of behaviors or other measures such as # in a category. Not appropriate for showing daily frequencies in real time.255
Characteristics of Graphed DataLevel, Trend and Variability256
Condition Change LineVertical line on graphs to indicate change. Solid line for planned treatment/condition changes. Dashed line for unplanned environment changes (Ex: changes in staff).257
ABC recordingRecording antecedent, behavior, consequence streams. Used in descriptive assessments.258
Analogue FASetup conditions that are not in a natural setting, but are setup to mimic real-life situations259
Analogue FA conditionsControl, attention, escape from task, alone, tangible260
BaselinePre-intervention assessment that is used to refine recording procedures, design the intervention and provide data with which to compare intervention data when evaluating intervention effects.261
Behavior DefinitionsObservable and measurable description of behavior262
Behavioral AssessmentAssessment that examines the person's entire life in order to identify possible causes of the behavior in question. You may use descriptive assessment methods or functional analyses.263
Behavioral assessment: 2 general kinds1. Functional analysis 2. Descriptive assessment264
Behavioral assessment: goalIdentify the function of behavior265
Conditional probabilityThe likelihood of an event occurring, given another event (e.g., how often a behavior occurs, given an antecedent). Formula: #A--> B/ # A OR # B --> C/# B.266
Descriptive analysis: limits1. Sometimes inaccurate conclusions 2. Function might change over time267
Descriptive analysis: strengths1. Easy for practitioner 2. No risk 3. Little training is needed268
Discrepency analysisCompare data with those of norm group to determine changeworthiness of current behavior269
Forced Choice Preference Assessment (paired item)Present pairs of reinforcers and note which is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all others on the list of possible reinforcers.270
Functional AnalysisManipulation of environmental conditions to determine a functional relation between problem behavior and independent variables. Often, the goal is to confirm an hypothesis developed in descriptive assessment.271
Functional analysis best practice: how many controls to useUse one control for each test (pair wise)272
Functional analysis best practice: natural vs contrived environmentsNatural273
Functional analysis best practice: role of supplemental informationTo develop an hypothesis and inform the FA274
Functional analysis best practice: what to do with tangible conditionIf descriptive assessment does not indicate behavior occurs to produce tangibles, then don't include in test conditions.275
Functional analysis modelsAB and ABC276
Functional analysis on high intensity behavior1. Look at the latency to the first response in the condition. Then end the condition. 2. Or, just study precursors.277
Functional analysis review: most common function1. Escape from task 2. Attention278
Functional analysis review: most common population studiedKids with disabilities279
Functional analysis review: most common settingInpatient settings280
Functional analysis: AB modelFA in which an EO is manipulated (task vs no task; frequent attention vs low attention). No consequences are presented when behavior occurs.281
Functional analysis: ABC modelFA in which EO and consequences are manipulated. Examples: Attention condition: FR 1 attention for problem behavior when attention deprived. Tangible condition: FR 1 tangible for problem behavior when tangible deprived.282
Functional analysis: briefAn FA that involves 1 or 2 sessions283
Functional analysis: limits1. Does analogue apply to real life 2. Sometimes misses idiosyncratic variables 3. Doesn't always investigate complex variables284
Functional analysis: Pair wiseWhen a particular test condition (e.g., FR 1 attention) has a corresponding control condition (e.g., continuous attention). A pair wise is often used to test a particular hypothesis (e.g., is the behavior maintained by attention?).285
Functional analysis: role of precursorsCan be the DV if the problem behavior is dangerous.286
Functional analysis: strengthsHigh degree of confidence in determining functional relations287
Functional analysis: Trial-based methodsFunctional analysis using brief trials in the natural environment. Research has used control-test or control-test-control sequences. DV is latency or % trials with problem behavior.288
Functional analysis: undifferentiated data1. It may suggest that the behavior is under multiple control (there is more than 1 operant) or 2. it may suggest that there is some idiosyncratic variable that is maintaining the behavior in all conditions or 3. automatic reinforcers might maintain beh289
How to compute conditional probability of A-B sequences# A-->B / # A290
How to compute conditional probability of B-C sequences# B-->C / # B291
How to sample high rate behaviorContinuous recording for short period of time292
Hypothesis testing (2 kinds)1. Tx vs no Tx probes in real life setting 2. Set up FA conditions to test hypothesis293
Kinds of descriptive assessments1. Direct observation 2. Naturalistic observation 3. ABC data294
Lag 1Examines the liklihood that an event occurs given another event that occurs just before. Example: A --> B295
Lag 2Examines the liklihood that an event occurs given another event that occurs 2 events prior. Example: A2 --> A --> B296
Lag sequential analysis'Computations that examine the liklihood that an event will occur given another event. When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Formula for A and B: Prob(A-->B)/Prob(A). Formula for B and C: 297
Low rate behavior: why it occursThe assumption is that the independent variables are low rate298
Low rate/high intensity behavior: Behavior assessment procedures1. Descriptive assessment 2. Present SD/EO299
Low rate/high intensity behavior: measurement1. Focus on precursors 2. Latency instead of rate300
Naturalistic behavioral assesmentBehavioral assessment that occurs in the natural environment.301
Observation in preference assessmentObserve a person in free time and record what they do302
Pattern AnalysisLooking for patterns of behavior, noting any kind of correlation of behavior and some other factor. Ex: time of day, staff, curriculum, etc. Common type of pattern analysis is scatterplot.303
Precursors: role in assessmentIn the case of high intensity behavior, precursors maybe assessed for safety reasons304
Precursors: role in treatmentIt can be useful to intervene, and treat, precursor behavior: 1) less restrictive procedures can be used 2) a given Tx maybe more effective, as precursors are earlier in the chain and therefore maybe weaker305
Preference assessment: Forced choicePresent person with pairs of potential reinforcers, and note which one is selected. Pair each potential reinforcer with all of the others on the list of possible potential reinforcers. Graph the # times each item is selected.306
Preference assessment: Multiple stimulus without replacementPresent an array and record how often an item is selected. Each time an item is selected, remove from array until all are selected. Good for rank ordering stimuli.307
Preference assessment: Multiple stimulus with replacementPresent an array and record how often an item is selected. After each item is selected, put back into array or replenish with another similar item, as with food.308
Preference assessment: Single stimulusPresent a single stimulus, and see if person contacts it. Or, record the latency or duration of contact.309
Preference Assessment: Types1. Interviews 2. Free operant - see what person contacts in free time 3. Single stimulus 4. Forced choice 5. Arrays with/without replacement310
Problem with analogue FA – with respect to generality of resultsAnalogue setting sometimes unlike real-life. Thus, poor generality in some cases.311
Rank Order PreferencesAnalyze choices to determine the most and least preferred items. Formula is # times an item is selected divided by total number of pairs in which the item appeared then multiply the total by 100.312
Reinforcer SamplingRequiring a person to sample various reinforcers, such that he/she has sufficient experience with them to choose the preferred reinforcer313
Reinforcer SurveyAsk people about their preferences. Now more correctly referred as a preference assessment.314
ScatterplotA chart that shows occurrences of behavior in a given time frame315
Self stim: how to identify in behavioral assessment1. Undifferentiated data 2. Persistence in absence of social contingencies 3. Manipulate public consequences 4. Substitute similar activities to decrease it316
Sequence AnalysisIdentifying events that typically precede and follow a target behavior. Also called ABC Analysis.317
Student assisted interview in assessmentInterview questions that student answers to assist in descriptive assessment.318
Target BehaviorBehavior to be changed.319
Testing Hypothesis in Functional AnalysisConditions are arranged to test the hypothesis. Ex: to assess behavior thought to occur for attention, compare condition in which attention is given after behavior with that where attention is withheld after behavior.320
Topographical Response DefinitionIncludes only description of the form, or topography, of the response.321
Trigger analysisExamine the evocative effects of a particular antecedent stimulus322
Behavioral GoalIncludes specific behaviors but not specific criteria for success. Should be age-appropriate.323
Behavioral Objective (six elements)Precise description of when a program will be successful: Includes measure, criterion for success, antecedent, behavior, and consequences (schedule of reinforcement) when the program is completed. Also includes the due date.324
Categories of functionsPositive reinforcement: Automatic and Socially mediated
Negative reinforcement: Automatic and socially mediated,325
Choice AvailabilityExtent to which clients are given choices about their lives and events therein. When choices are provided, fewer problem behaviors may be exhibited.326
Complete Behavioral Support Plan4 Elements: motivating operations, discriminative control, replacement behaviors and consequence manipulations327
Constructional ApproachApproach to decreasing inappropriate behavior by focusing on building new behaviors to replace inappropriate behaviors (replacement skills)328
Contextual Variables (setting events)Variables that are more generally present stimuli that are not necessarily manipulated as part of a behavior change program. May influence the efficacy of behavioral procedures. Ex: medical status, task variation, number of staff, etc.329
Ecological ChangesChanging schedules, staffing patterns, activities, diet, etc.330
Example of changing curriculum to Tx behavior problemTask difficulty linked to problem behavior --> reduce difficult tasks or teach mand for help331
Foundational SkillsSkill that must be taught before other skills can be taught332
Functional equivalenceWhen two or more behaviors have the same effect (they belong to the same operant). This concept is often used in identifying a replacement behavior.333
Functional GoalsGoals that will improve the life of the client and allow more independence and choice. If not accomplished, a caregiver will be required to perform the activity for the person.334
General case analysisWhen training for generalization, including all relevant stimuli/responses that might be encountered. For example, when training hand washing, all possible sink/soap combinations might be trained to prepare the person.335
Generative learningLearning a general pattern of responding that allows the learner to perform in an untrained activity
example: learn colors then learn shapes: as result student can identify color/shape combinations,336
Intermediate outcomesGoals that lead to ultimate outcomes Ex: learning to dress, ride the bus. Often involves the use of a behavioral objective337
Interventions based on client's current repertoire1. Select prompts based on skills (e.g., text prompts if they can read) 2. Initial time for wait program is 80% of the average338
Interventions based on environmental and resource constraints1. Recommend low cost tablet to family without great financial resources339
Interventions based on supporting environment1. Classroom teacher with 20 kids: avoid complex schedules of reinforcement 2. Family with 1 parent and 4 kids: avoid lots of 1-1 teaching sessions340
Interventions that follow from assessmentEcological changes, antecedent manipulation, replacement skills, change consequences of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, emergency procedures, motivational operations341
Intructional procedures to promote generative learning (i.e., derived relations)Setup teaching stimuli so that A =B, B =C in the hope that you will get A=C without teaching342
PicaConsuming inedible items (e.g., screws, bolts, small toys)343
Positive programming for attention-maintained behaviorMand, waiting, selecting alternatives, DRO/DRI, Premack Principle where attention is earned.344
Positive programming for escape-maintained behaviorMand, tolerance training, DRO/DRI, Premack Principle where break is earned.345
Positive programming for tangible-maintained behaviorMand, waiting, selecting alternatives, DRO/DRI, Premack Principle where tangible is earned.346
Program Design Relating to ImplementersDesign the Tx while keeping in mind the contingencies controlling the implementers behavior: will Tx be monitored, will staff receive feedback, etc.347
Programming response generalizationDuring training, program different topographical requirements, such using different faucets in handwashing that require different techniquess348
Public CommitmentPerson designing his/her own self-control program enlisting the contingency management support of friends or family.349
Reasons why you might need to intervene1. Danger to self, others 2. Safety hazard 3. Welfare in current environment 4. Behavior problem prevents access to less restrictive environment350
Recommendations Regarding InterventionsConsider: client preferences, task analysis info, client's current repertoire, supports available in environment, environmental constraints, social validity, assessments and best practice351
Reinforcer in using escape/avoidance hierarchyRemoval from hierarchy or transition to previous step. Can also use positive reinforcers from preference assessment.352
Replacement SkillsNew skills that are taught to replace target behaviors in order to obtain the same reinforcer353
Response GeneralizationEffects of some contingency spread to responses not yet associated with the contingency.354
Social ValidityWhether goals, procedures, and outcomes are acceptable. This can be determined by asking community members, experts, competent individuals, family or the client.355
Target SettingSetting to which a client will be placed after behavioral programming has finished. Setting to which generalization efforts are directed356
Task analysisTask in broken into smaller elements and elements are stated in their correct order357
Train Loosely for GeneralizationDuring training, vary the environment such that there is not narrow stimulus control over the skill. This procedure tends to flatten the generalization gradient.358
Training observersObservers can be trained through explanation, video tapes, modeling and feedback. They can be calibrated using behaviors for which frequencies are known.359
Ultimate outcomesGoals that relate to health, safety, choice, access to positive reinforcers, avoiding aversive events and quality of life.360
Ways to Program Generalization (8 ways)1. Instructions – train a response and give instruction to encourage generalization 2. Train in many stimulus conditions.(multiple exemplars) 3. Design supportive environment-untrained situations. 4. Train loosely 5. Program common stimuli 6. Delayed/intermittent reinforcement 7. Self Management 8. Use a variety of prosthetic devices for response generalization361
Artificial v.s. Natural ContingenciesGiven a choice, a behavioral programmer should select contingencies that approximate those in the natural environment, rather than artificial contingencies. Where artificial contingencies must be used, however, they should be changed to more normal contingencies whenever possible.362
Behavior change agent monitoring: Variables that determine how often1. How dangerous is the behavior 2. Frequency of behavior 3. How fluent is behavior change agent in implementing the program363
Competency based trainingThe kind of training that is essential in staff training and management. This training involves a needs assessment, learning objectives, performance criteria, training procedures (instruction, simulations, in vivo training), and on-line feedback. Training systems observe the principles of behavior that are found in BCBA class.364
Counter controlAttempts by the subjects of behavior programming to change the behavior of the programmer. For example, students learned to train their teachers to deliver more praise and positive comments.365
Curriculum adjustment options1. Content - make tasks more functional 2. Variation - include new tasks and maintenance tasks 3. Student choice of tasks 4. Pace of task presentation 5. Interspersal - use high-p and low-p instructions; preferred and non-preferred366
Documentation of behavioral services: elements1. Date 2. Start time 3. End time 4. Service note 5. Beh analyst name 6. Parent/client signature367
Evaluate effectiveness of a behavior program1. Data on the graph 2. Social validity368
Frequency of monitoring depends on…Depends on safety concerns and stage of program: newer programs should be monitored more often.369
How to assess whether staff training is needed:Diagnose issues: can't do or won't do? Or both?370
Information sharing and displayInformation about behavior analysis services should be provided to those directly involved (clients, trainers, parents), and to those who have a legitimate interest (educational/governmental officials, administrators). When sharing data with non-professionals, the display should be easily interpreted (avoid 6 cycle graphs - consider bar graphs).371
Integrity of the Independent VariableRefers to the extent to which the treatment is implemented as intended.372
Monitoring: 2 target behaviors1. Client behavior 2. Implementors behavior373
Obtain Support from OthersTo maintain a client's behavior, you should secure support from those in their natural environment and work in collaboration with others who are involved with the client.374
Outcomes managementWhen feedback is given to participants and the feedback depends on an outcome (often involves a permanent product such as $ made, skills taught, etc or some other product of behavior).375
Performance Monitoring SystemsSystems designed to encourage and maintain appropriate staff behavior. They involve objectively defined job descriptions, sufficient training in the job, on-line frequent feedback, and a system of incentives for excellent performance376
Procedural IntegrityCollecting data on the extent to which the program is being implemented correctly. Contingencies are used to maintain and shape behavior of implementers.377
Procedural integrity DVThe typical DV is % of competencies correctly displayed.378
Pyramid model of trainingTrain the trainers. Behavior analyst trains personnnel who then become the trainers for others.379
Role of feedback from traineesTo help behavior analyst develop more effective training.380
Role of maintenance in monitoringIdentify contingencies that will maintain skills of implementers.381
Secure support of others to maintain client behavior change: behavioral trappingDevelop contingencies in the natural environment to "trap" or reinforcer newly acquired skills382
Staff training: best practiceExplanation, demonstration, and feedback on their implementation. It is particularly important to have them practice the skills and receive feedback.383
Staff/Parent Training designID contingencies controlling her/his behavior, and then use this to design the contingencies for ensuring implementation384
Support for behavior analysis services from those directly involvedA behavior analyst should enlist support for her/his technology from those who are directly affected by the services (e.g., staff, teachers, teacher assistants, counselors).385
Support for behavior analysis services from those indirectly involvedA behavior analyst should enlist support for her/his technology from those who are indirectly affected by the services - those who may have decision power over the behavior analyst (administrators, educational/government officials, advocacy committee, DCF386
Techniques behavior analysts can use to influence others in the systemRun a behavior program! Identify critical participants and then…1. Pairing 2. Reinforce their cooperation 3. Education/prompts 4. Show outcomes of efficacy in case reviews, publications, etc.387
Termination of services: Plan?Behavior analysts should arrange for an orderly discharge/titration plan388
Titration planGradually decrease the frequency/level of services as a way to fade services389
What monitoring tool to use?Same as training checklist390
ABA Characteristics1. Generality 2. Applied 3. Technological 4. Analytic 5. Conceptually systematic 6. Applied 7. Behavioral391
Behavior Analysis: 4 domains1. EAB 2. ABA 3. Conceptual 4. Service delivery (behavior technologies)392
AnalyticCharacteristic of ABA. Scientifically based experimental designs are used. They maybe used to identify the function of problem behavior, whether or not a Tx works, or what element of a Tx is effective.393
AppliedCharacteristic of ABA. Focuses on behavior with social significance.394
Applied Behavior Analysis vs Experimental Analysis of BehaviorBoth use systematic manipulations and data analysis of individual organisms.
ABA: Behaviors of social significance to the person are investigated
EAB: Behaviors of no social significance of the person are investigated,395
Assumptions/Characteristics of Science1. Determinism 2. Law of Parsimony 3. Scientific Manipulation 4. Empiricism 5. Philosophic Doubt 6. Replication396
BehavioralCharacteristic of ABA. Behavior is the focus, not a hypothetical entity.397
Behavioral TechnologiesCollection of procedures that have arisen from research and are applied to practical problems by practitioners. Ex: behavioral momentum is now implemented by many service providers in clinics, schools, and homes398
Behavioral view of “sensory defensiveness”Tactile stimuli are negative reinforcers399
BehaviorismPhilosophy of behavior that assumes behavior is a function of current and past environments as well as genetics.400
Conceptually SystematicCharacteristic of ABA. Procedures are tied to the basic principles of behavior.401
DeterminismAssumption of Science. Behavior is caused by some event.402
EffectiveCharacteristic of ABA. Changes in behavior that are large enough to impact a person's life.403
EmpiricismAssumption of Science. Information is collected by objective observations404
Explanatory Fiction/Circular ReasoningExplaining behavior by using entity that lies within the behavior itself. (Eric is aggressive because he has an aggressive trait. Evidence of aggressive trait is his aggressive behavior)405
GeneralityExtent to which the results or functional relations will be observed if the experiment is changed in some way. Can be tested by implementing the Tx with different Ss, settings, behaviors, or species.406
Inadequate Explanations of Behavior1. Nominal Fallacy 2. Teleology 3. Reification 4. Circular reasoning407
Lawfulness of behaviorThere is an orderly relation between behavior and other variables - there is no behavior phenemena that are "undetermined" or occurring freely.408
Maladaptive behavior: problem with term "maladaptive"It is assumed that behavior is adaptive, as it has a function.409
Mentalistic Explanations of BehaviorExplanations that appeal to mental, unobservable processes. Ex: The child was aggressive due to his frustration with school.410
Methodological behaviorismA kind of behaviorism that has the same assumptions of the causes of behavior as other kinds, but also holds that public events are appropriate targets.411
Nominal FallacyExplaining behavior by naming or classifying it (The behavior is PICA to explain eating inedible objects)412
Parsimony (Law of)Assumption of Science. The simplest explanation of behavior should be provided, all else being equal413
Philosophic DoubtAssumption of Science. Conclusions of science are tentative and can be revised as new data comes to light.414
PragmatismThe approach that holds the value of a theory or system is evaluated by its practical value.415
Private EventsBehavior and/or stimuli that can only be observed by the person emitting the behavior, or experiencing the stimuli. (Ex: headaches) These behaviors and stimuli still must be explained by appealing to a history of environmental contingencies or biologic416
Radical behaviorismA kind of behaviorism that has the same assumptions of the causes of behavior as other kinds, but also holds that both public and private events are appropriate targets.417
ReificationExplaining behavior by appealing to non-existent entity (ID, ego, self, etc.)418
Respondent - operant interactionA complete explanation of a given collection of behaviors often requires describing both operant and respondent processes.419
Respondent - operant interaction (example)The sound of a ringing phone may serve as an SD for picking it up. It may also serve as a CS for heart rate increases.420
Response classA collection of responses that has a common characteristic: For example, topographical class or functional class421
Scientific ManipulationCharacteristic of Science. Systematically manipulating an event to see effects on behavior422
SelectionismAn approach that, as applied to behavior analysis, suggests a complete account of behavior must consider 3 levels of selection: natural, operant conditioning, and cultural practice.423
Selectionism (cultural practice)Cultural practice selection is the emergence of a cultural practice as a result of the culture surviving over time. 1. Selection mechanism: cultural survival 2. What is selected: cultural practice424
Selectionism (natural)Natural selection is the emergence of genetic characterisitic as a result of the organism surviving until breeding age, and passing that characteristic to the offspring. 1. Selection mechanism: survival 2. What is selected: genes425
Selectionism (operant conditioning)Operant conditioning is the emergence of a behavior as a result of reinforcement. 1. Selection mechanism: reinforcement 2. What is selected: behavior426
Setting events: issue with termSetting events is not technical term in the field. They typically refer to motivational operations427
Social SignificanceCharacteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis whereas the behavior is socially significant to the person as well as the changes that occur.428
Systematic ManipulationAssumption of science. To see if an event affects behavior, the event is systematically manipulated and the effects on behavior are noted.429
TechnologicalCharacteristic of ABA. Provides written detail of procedures to permit replication of techniques in other settings.430
TeleologyExplaining behavior by appealing to future, unexperienced events (I am doing my homework to graduate)431
Abative effectWhen a stimulus causes an immediate weakening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an S-delta or SDP.432
Abolishing Operations1. Decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Decreases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past433
AntecedentStimulus before the behavior434
Automatic reinforcement/punishmentA reinforcer/punisherthat is produced by the behavior without the participation of other people (i.e., "response produced"). For example, echolalia produces sounds that may maintain the behavior. It can be either a reinforcer or punisher.435
BehaviorInteraction of a person and his/her environment. Action of the muscles and/or glands436
Behavioral explanation of self stimThe behavior is maintained by the production of sensory stimuli.437
CODChange over delay - when a concurrent superstition occurs, a delay is programmed after the first behavior occurs to eliminate the superstition.438
Concurrent superstitionWhen a behavior (e.g., tantrum) is maintained by the reinforcer for another behavior (e.g., mand for food). Occurs when the 2 behaviors occur close in time.439
Conditional discriminationA stimulus is a discriminative stimulus depending on the presence or absence of a 2nd stimulus. Example: if blue light is on, then the triangle is the SD; if a red light is on, then the square is the SD.440
Conditioned Motivating Operations (CMO)Have the same 2 effects that motivative operations have, but are due to a conditioning history441
ConsequenceEvent that occurs after the behavior442
ContiguityThis refers to the temporal relation between a behavior and consequence or other stimuli. If there is "contiguity" then they are close in time443
Contingency (behavioral)Dependency among behavior and stimuli or among stimuli. Can be expressed as an If-Then Statement.444
Contingency Shaped BehaviorBehavior that occurs because it has resulted from direct exposure to contingencies.445
CRConditioned Response – a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus446
CSConditioned Stimulus – a neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US447
DeprivationAbsence of reinforcer for a period of time, thereby making that event more effective as a reinforcer.448
Discriminated OperantBehavior that requires some "opportunity" or specific antecedent to occur. Ex: to follow directions, there must first be a direction given.449
DiscriminationRefers to a change in observed behavior when antecedent stimuli are changed450
Distal MO exampleChild abused by visiting parent over weekend --> problem behavior Monday at school451
EnvironmentEntire constellation of stimuli that can affect a person (includes both internal/external)452
Escape behavior Escape behavior is behavior that is reinforced by terminating a stimulus (negative reinforcer)453
Establishing Operation1. Increases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Increases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past454
Evocative effectWhen a stimulus causes an immediate strengthening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an SD, CS, or US.455
Extinction-Induced AggressionAggressive behavior that occurs when a behavior is being extinguished.456
Free OperantBehavior that can occur at anytime, given some motivation. Is not strongly tied to a particular SD457
Function of behaviorRefers to the maintaining reinforcer458
Function-alteringThe concept that conditioning (and rules) alters the function of stimuli. For example, discrimination training creates SDs. And, reinforcement creates EO s.459
Function-altering: Operant conditioningReinforcement alters the function of neutral stimuli and results in the emergence of SDs and EO s.460
Function-altering: Respondent conditioningThe pairing of a NS and US results in a change of the NS function - it becomes a CS.461
Function-altering: RulesRules create new CSs, SDs, conditioned reinforcers, EO s, etc. through a function-altering process.462
Generalization GradientA graph that shows the frequency of a behavior in various stimulus conditions, one of which is the "training" situation and then other similar but untrained "test" situations.463
Matching equationEquation that expresses a fundamental functional relation: the rate of response will be sensitive to the rate of reinforcement for that response as well as the rate of reinforcement for other responses Equation: R1/R1 + R2 = r1/r1 + r2464
Matching equation: 2 ways to decrease R11. Decrease the rate of reinforcement for R1 and 2. Increase the rate of reinforcement for R2.465
Motivating Operation (2 effects)1. Changes the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Changes the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past466
Motivating operation (conditioned)A motivating operation that has the two effects: but the value altering effect occurs because of a learning history.467
Motivating operation (unconditioned)A motivating operation that has the two effects: but the value altering effect occurs without a learning history.468
Motivating operation vs discriminative stimulus1. MO - changes the value of a reinforcer 2. Discriminative stimuli (SD, S-delta, SDP) - signals degree of availability469
Motivating operation vs reinforcement effects1. MO - evoke or abate behavior 2. Reinforcement - increases future frequency, and brings behavior under evocative control of an EO 3. Thus, the effect of a MO is a result of a history of reinforcement470
Motivating operation: distalAn MO that is temporally removed from a behavior - for example, several hours prior to the behavior that is strengthened.471
Motivating operation: proximalAn MO that occurs close in time to a behavior472
Multiple effects of a stimulusStimuli have multiple effects. For example, a food reinforcer increases the future frequency of behavior, but may also elicit salivation, or condition other stimuli to be conditioned reinforcers or CSs.473
Multiple functions of a behaviorA given behavior may be belong to more than one operant. For example, hand waving might be maintained by attention, and it might also be maintained by access to an activity.474
PolydipsiaExcessive drinking - generated by schedules of food delivery. Rats under a FT 1 min schedule will drink up to 4-5 times their body weight in water. Also seen in FI schedules.475
Proximal MO exampleTask presented to child --> problem behavior476
Punishment (Conditioned)1. Neutral stimulus paired with a punisher 2. As a result, the neutral stimulus now becomes a punisher477
Punishment (unconditioned)The process by which a consequence of behavior produces a decrease in the frequency of behavior, and does so because of a learning history (e.g., pairing of the consequence with another consequence)478
Punishment (unconditioned)The process by which a consequence of behavior produces a decrease in the frequency of behavior, and does so without a learning history.479
Reflexive relationsThese refer to the relation between a US-UR480
ReflexivityIf A=A, then A=A481
Reinforcer (Conditioned)A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of behavior because it has been paired with another reinforcer (or punisher)482
Reinforcer (unconditioned)A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience. Ex: food, drinks483
Relation between reinforcer effectiveness and delay, amount, quality, deprivation, and variety.Reinforcer effectiveness increases with shorter delay, larger amounts, higher quality, greater deprivation, and greater variety.484
Resistance to extinction: schedule effectsExtinction after dense schedules (FR 1): rapid. Extinction after thin schedules (VR 100): slow485
Respondent (classical) ConditioningKind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit the same or similar response that the second elicits: CS--> CR486
Respondent ExtinctionDecrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting the CS alone487
ResponseA single instance of a behavioral class.488
Response DefinitionDescription of a response that is in objective and observable terms489
ResurgenceWhen Beh 1 re-appears after: 1. Beh 1 is extinguished and Beh 2 is conditioned then… 2. Beh 2 is extinguished or the schedule for Beh 2 is thinned490
Rule-Governed BehaviorBehavior resulting from rules rather than direct exposure to contingencies. For example a person may put together a bike using the instruction manual.491
RulesContingency-specifying stimuli (CSS) that describe relations between stimuli or between stimuli and behavior492
S-deltaA stimulus that:
1. suppresses a behavior 2. because that behavior has been extinguished in the presence of the stimulus,493
SDStimulus that
1. evokes a behavior 2. because that behavior has been reinforced in the presence of the stimulus.,494
SDPStimulus that
1. decreases or suppresses a behavior 2. because that behavior has been punished in the presence of the stimulus.,495
Social ExtinctionExtinction of a behavior maintained by social reinforcers. Withholding social reinforcement.496
StimulusAn energy change in the environment that affects a person through his/her senses.497
Stimulus ClassCollection of stimuli with a common characteristic. Ex: any stimulus that evokes tantrums, or any stimulus of a certain wavelength.498
Stimulus ControlThe extent to which a behavior occurs when the antecedent stimulus is presented. EX: Mom has stimulus control over a child's tantrums to the extent that the child tantrums in the presence of mom, and does not tantrum in her absence.499
Stimulus EquivalenceWhen a class of stimuli evoke the same responses or more generally have the same effects on behavior. Stimuli that evoke the response "dog" include 1. word dog 2. picture of dog 3. sight of dog 4. sound of dog barking500
Stimulus GeneralizationEffects of a contingency spread to stimuli not yet associated with the contingency.501
Stimulus Over-SelectivityThe tendency of lower functioning individuals to attend to one and only one element of a complex SD. With a red A and blue B, the individual may only attend to the colors and fail to attend to the letters.502
Surrogate CMOA surrogate CMO has its effect because of a history of pairing with an MO, and these effects mimic those of the MO.503
SymmetryIf A=B, then B=A504
Transitive CMOChange the reinforcing value of some other stimulus, and change the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past.505
TransitivityIf A=B and B=C, then A=C506
URUnconditioned Response- response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus507
USUnconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that elicits a behavior w/o any history.508
AudienceThe individual(s) who provides the reinforcement for VB. The audience is an SD for the VB but does not determine the specific form.509
AutocliticVB that is used to modify the effect of other VB on the listener ("You are moving really slowly" - really is the autoclitic)510
Echoic1. Form determined by prior verbal stimulus 2. Point to point correspondence (PTP) 3. Formal similarity 4. Maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcer 5. Audience is part of SD, but does not determine the form511
Intraverbal1. Form determined by prior verbal stimulus 2. No point to point correspondence 3. Formal similarity not necessary 4. Maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcer 5. Audience is part of SD, but doesn't determine the form512
Mand1. Form determined by EO 2. Maintained by specified reinforcer 3. Audience is SD, but doesn't determine the form513
Meaning of a wordVariables responsible for its emission.514
Negative PunisherStimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, decreases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will increase.515
Negative ReinforcementProcess in which a stimulus is terminated after a behavior, and the rate of the behavior increases.516
Negative ReinforcerStimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will decrease.517
NSNeutral Stimulus – stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to conditioning518
OperantA collection of responses with a common effect on the environment. Ex: child may do a variety of things to obtain attention.519
Operant ConditioningKind of learning where a class of responses (operant) is modified by changing its consequences.520
Positive PunisherA stimulus that when presented after a behavior, decreases the rate of behavior. The IRTs would increase.521
Positive ReinforcementProcess in which a stimulus is presented after a behavior and the rate of the behavior increases. The IRTs would decrease.522
Positive ReinforcerStimulus that when presented after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that the IRT will decrease.523
Primary ReinforcerReinforcer effective without previous conditioning (food, water)524
Reflexive CMOHave their effects because their presence signals a "worsening" or "improvement" of conditions. In the former, their offset is reinforcing. In the latter, their offset is punishing.525
Skinner’s Verbal BehaviorA system of language that classifies verbal behavior according to its function.526
TactThe form of a tact is determined by a prior non-verbal stimulus. Audience has some discriminative control, but does not determine the form. The reinforcer is a GCR.527
Tact (controlling variables)Nonverbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR528
Tact extensionsGeneric, metaphor, metonomy, solistic - degrees of generalization of the tact529
TextualThe form of a textual is determined by a prior verbal stimulus that is in written form. Audience has some discriminative control, but does not determine the form. The reinforcer is a GCR. There is point-to-point correspondence but formal dissimilarity.530
Textual (controlling variables)Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR. PTP correspondence but dissimilar forms531
Verbal behaviorBehavior that is maintained by reinforcement mediated by another person. In the refined definition, the other person (audience) is trained by the verbal community to provide the reinforcer for that behavior.532
Measurable dimensions of behaviorRate, duration, latency, IRT533
Generalization vs generalityGeneralization: Effects of Tx spread to untrained stimuli/responses. Generality: The Tx will work in other settings, behaviors, people, species534
Phylogenic historyRefers to evolutionary history535
Ontogenic historyRefers to the lifetime of the organism536
2nd Order ScheduleA schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforced response is another schedule: FR 10 (VR 3: S)537
Principles of behaviorFunctional relations with generality across species. Examples: positive/negative reinforcement and punishment; SD, S-delta, EO, AO538